After having gained its independence in 1648, the Netherlands tried in various coalitions to help to contain France, which had replaced Spain as the strongest nation of Europe. Jahrhundert sind Willem Pijper, Matthijs Vermeulen, Louis Andriessen, Otto Ketting, Ton de Leeuw, Theo Loevendie, Misha Mengelberg, Tristan Keuris und Klaas de Vries (Liste niederländischer Komponisten klassischer Musik). The Dutch War for Independence from Spain is frequently called the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648). Having a stronger country on France's northern border was considered (especially by Tsar Alexander) to be an important part of the strategy to keep France's power in check. Die niederländischen Streitkräfte sind formell eine Institution des Königreichs der Niederlande, nicht des Landes Niederlande. [226], See also: Bibliography of the history of the Netherlands [nl], Mask of a Roman horseman, discovered near, Earliest groups of hunter-gatherers (before 5000 BC), The arrival of farming (around 5000–4000 BC), Funnelbeaker and other cultures (around 4000–3000 BC), Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures (around 3000–2000 BC), Modern doubts about the traditional Frisian, Frank and Saxon distinction, Frankish dominance and incorporation into the Holy Roman Empire, Burgundian and Habsburg period (1433–1567), The Dutch in Asia: The Dutch East India Company, Dutch Republic: Regents and Stadholders (1649–1784), First Stadtholderless Period and the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1650–1674), Franco-Dutch War and Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1702), Second Stadtholderless Period (1702–1747), Patriot rebellion and its suppression (1785–1795), Kingdom of Holland to William I (1806–1815), United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839), Democratic and Industrial Development (1840–1900), 1848 Constitutional reform and liberalism, False hopes, the Hunger Winter and Liberation, Prosperity and European Unity (1945–present), Europeanisation, Americanisation and internationalisation. Most of the annexed territory was returned to Germany on 1 August 1963. By. Die Niederlande sind Gründungsmitglied der Montanunion von 1951, aus der sich mehrere Nachfolger und 1992 die Europäische Union (EU) entwickelten. New town halls, weighhouses and storehouses were built. Amsterdam was also one of the most reliable in settling tax demands and therefore was able to use the threat to withhold such payments to good effect.[111]. "[5] This transformation took place as early as 4300 BC–4000 BC[6] and featured the introduction of grains in small quantities into a traditional broad-spectrum economy.[7]. [127] Still a teenager, William V assumed the position of stadtholder in 1766, the last to hold that office. Die „frühe Demokratisierung der Niederlande“ habe darin ihren Ursprung.[41]. The supplying of these ships with fresh provisions, fruit, and wine provided a very large market for the surplus produce of the colony.[101]. Holland lost its world dominance in trade as competitors emerged and copied its practices, built their own ships and ports, and traded on their own account directly without going through Dutch intermediaries. Seit dem 1. Despite desperate fighting by American, British and Polish forces, the bridge at Arnhem, across the Neder Rijn, could not be captured. Amsterdam was governed by a body of regents, a large, but closed, oligarchy with control over all aspects of the city's life, and a dominant voice in the foreign affairs of Holland. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. Fortuyn wurde am 6. The latter entity became the modern Netherlands. 1999 erschienen mit metro und Sp!ts die ersten Gratiszeitungen in den Niederlanden, mittlerweile sind DAG und De Pers hinzugekommen. Darüber hinaus sind diverse Arten des Metals in den Niederlanden sehr beliebt. The House of Orange reacted with severity, relying on Prussian troops led by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick and a small contingent of British troops to suppress the rebellion. In 1840 William I abdicated in favor of his son, William II, who attempted to carry on the policies of his father in the face of a powerful liberal movement. On 17 July 2014, 193 Dutch people are among 300 people on aboard killed in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 plane shot down by the air-surface missile in Eastern Ukraine near Russian border. The approximately 450 years of Roman rule that followed would profoundly change the area that would become the Netherlands. During William's reign as King of England, his primary focus was leveraging British manpower and finances to aid the Dutch against the French. The name Holland is also frequently used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Franks appear in Roman texts as both allies and enemies (laeti and dediticii). The Dutch decided not to ally themselves with anyone, and kept out of all European wars especially the First World War that swirled about it. Despite this, nominal wages were repeatedly increased, outstripping price increases. [190][191], The Indos of Indonesian descent (now numbering around 680,000) is the largest ethnic minority group in the Netherlands. [dubious – discuss] NATO brought in American military doctrine and technology. 2016 waren 20,4 % der Bevölkerung stark übergewichtig, was unterhalb des europäischen Durchschnitts liegt.[33]. Gelre attempted to build up its own state in northeast Netherlands and northwest Germany. Some scholars (De Laet, Gysseling, Hachmann, Kossack & Kuhn) have speculated that a separate ethnic identity, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period. The climate deteriorating in Scandinavia around 850 BC to 760 BC and later and faster around 650 BC might have triggered migrations. Formell hat das Parlament nicht über die Zusammensetzung der Regierung zu bestimmen, tatsächlich aber ernennt der König die Minister nach Konsultation der Fraktionen. Der Wiener Kongress erhob außerdem das Herzogtum Luxemburg zum Großherzogtum Luxemburg und sprach Luxemburg Wilhelm I. persönlich zu, als Entschädigung für den Verlust seiner Gebiete in Deutschland (Nassau-Dillenburg, Siegen, Hadamar und Diez). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch were arguably the most economically wealthy and scientifically advanced of all European nations. But toleration was practiced for the convenience of the city. Über die Landesgrenzen hinaus bekannt sind auch der niederländische Pudding Vla und die Bratrollen, die frikandel genannt werden, wie auch die frittierten Fischhappen Kibbeling, deren Zubereitung der von Hähnchennuggets ähnelt. With the emergence of the Protestant Reformation, Charles—now the Emperor—was determined to crush Protestantism and never compromise with it. Bestrebungen der niederländischen Regierung, Teile Niedersachsens sowie des westlichen Münster- und Rheinlandes an die Niederlande anzugliedern (Bakker-Schut-Plan), konnten sich nicht durchsetzen. [141] Die Niederlande sind nach den USA der weltweit zweitgrößte Exporteur landwirtschaftlicher Erzeugnisse. „streng-calvinistisch“. During the Golden Age, there was a great flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences in the Netherlands. To make this even more fun, I want to give you a challenge. However, now the fishing of herring alone came to occupy 2,000 boats operating out of Dutch ports. And again in 870, Rorik was received by Charles the Bald in Nijmegen, to whom he became a vassal. [25][26] Their view is that this culture, which had its own language, was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east as late as the immediate pre-Roman period. The number of people employed in agriculture decreased, while the country made a strong effort to revive its stake in the highly competitive shipping and trade business. During this time, the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast. [67] In a society dependent on trade, freedom and tolerance were considered essential. m³ pro Jahr reduziert und bis 2030 eingestellt werden.[77][78]. An incident at sea concerning the Act resulted in the First Anglo-Dutch War, which lasted from 1652 to 1654, ending in the Treaty of Westminster (1654), which left the Navigation Act in effect. 277–79, 284, Edwards, Elizabeth, "Amsterdam and William III,", Gijs Rommelse, "Prizes and Profits: Dutch Maritime Trade during the Second Anglo-Dutch War,", C. H. Wilson, "The Economic Decline of the Netherlands,", Thomas M. Lennon and Michael Hickson, "Pierre Bayle,", Simon Schama, "The Rights of Ignorance: Dutch Educational Policy in Belgium 1815–30,", Schama, "The Rights of Ignorance: Dutch Educational Policy in Belgium 1815–30," pp. The Spanish successfully suppressed it there, and Lutheranism only flourished in east Friesland. With the 2001 Same-Sex Marriage Act, the Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage. By the early 11th century, Dirk III, Count of Holland was levying tolls on the Meuse estuary and was able to resist military intervention from his overlord, the Duke of Lower Lorraine. [151][152], The late 19th century saw a cultural revival. [153] Literature, music, architecture and science also flourished. Die Zahl der Konfessionslosen stieg gleichzeitig erstmals auf 52 %. [citation needed]. All countries had an interest in keeping the others out of the Netherlands so that no one's interests could be taken away or be changed. The Dutch West India Company was a chartered company (known as the "GWC") of Dutch merchants. The government placed many cities under 'state of siege'. They seized the Cape Colony in 1795 to prevent it from falling into French hands, then briefly relinquished it back to the Dutch (1803), before definitively conquering it in 1806. On Koningsdag (King's Day), 30 April 2013, Prince Willem Alexander appointed as the King, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication, Queen Beatrix. Auf dem Höhepunkt ihrer Macht behaupteten sie sich 1667 gegen England im Englisch-Niederländischen Krieg und hielten sogar die Expansion des französischen Sonnenkönigs Ludwig XIV. Man befürchtet, dass der Ausdruck Holland mit Klischees wie Tulpen und Windmühlen verbunden wird, während das Land sich lieber als modern und weltoffen sieht. Eine Einteilung in Landkreise unterhalb der Provinzebene gibt es nicht. [222], Once heralded as the leading event of modern Dutch history, the Dutch Revolt lasted from 1568 to 1648, and historians have worked to interpret it for even longer. National industries such as shipyards and sugar refineries expanded as well. Bei den Provinzen und großen Städten wird die politische Machtverteilung im nationalen Parlament berücksichtigt. His son, William V, was 3 years old when his father died, and a long regency characterised by corruption and misrule began. Jedoch schon 1830 erklärten sich die südlichen Niederlande unter der Bezeichnung Belgien für unabhängig. Unter dem Nachfolger Karls, Philipp II., kam es von 1566 an zu einer Serie von Aufständen. Jahrhunderts blühte neben der Malerei auch die Literatur, als bekannteste Vertreter wären Joost van den Vondel und Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft zu nennen. The Allies demanded that the Dutch stop the smuggling, and the government took measures to remain neutral. Other Flemings, notably the educated bourgeoisie, preferred to speak French. In the 1670s one such union, that of the Trip family (the Amsterdam branch of the Swedish arms makers) with the son of Burgomaster Valckenier, extended the influence and patronage available to the latter and strengthened his dominance of the council. As a result, the price of potatoes rose sharply because Britain had demanded so much from the Dutch. By the time the Dutch colony was seized by the British in 1806, it had grown into an established settlement with 25,000 slaves, 20,000 white colonists, 15,000 Khoisan, and 1,000 freed black slaves. Die Niederlande verfügen damit über eine Berufsarmee. Viking raids of the Low Countries continued for over a century. Ab groep 3 fangen die Kinder an, das Lesen, Schreiben und Rechnen zu erlernen. Limburg | Deutsch-Niederländische Korps mit der deutschen Bundeswehr verbunden. Niederlande (mit den Besonderen Gemeinden) • [24][25] Das Gesundheitssystem ist im Vergleich zu anderen westlichen Ländern recht effektiv, aber nicht das kostengünstigste. [131] The Batavian Republic enjoyed widespread support and sent soldiers to fight in the French armies. [219], The H-Net list H-Low-Countries is published free by email and is edited by scholars. [76] Wegen durch die Erdgasförderung ausgelöster Erdbeben, die Schäden an Gebäuden verursachten, soll die Förderung im Groninger Gasfeld bis 2022 auf etwa 12 Mrd. By the end of the 6th century, the Frisian territory in the northern Netherlands had expanded west to the North Sea coast and, by the 7th century, south to Dorestad. Die gruppeninterne Sprache Bargoens ist eine niederländisch basierte Sondersprache, die mit dem deutschen Rotwelsch oder Jenisch vergleichbar ist.[15]. The Menapii stretched from the south of Zeeland, through North Brabant (and possibly South Holland), into the southeast of Gelderland. In Dutch and Frisian historical tradition, the trading centre of Dorestad declined after Viking raids from 834 to 863; however, since no convincing Viking archaeological evidence has been found at the site (as of 2007), doubts about this have grown in recent years.[57]. Jahrhundert wird als Goldenes Zeitalter beschrieben. Then, it spread to Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the other major cities in the west. Die moderne Soziologie verdankt ihrem niederländischen Begründer S. Rudolf Steinmetz bedeutende Anregungen. Mit Eingang des 8. Da aber laut Verfassung die Regierung der Niederlande den Oberbefehl über die Streitkräfte innehat, werden sie faktisch dem Land Niederlande zugerechnet. Zu dem Gebiet der Niederlande, das in diesem Artikel dargestellt wird, gehören neben den zwölf Provinzen des europäischen Teils die Karibikinseln Bonaire, Sint Eustatius und Saba (einschließlich ihrer jeweiligen Nebeninseln), die Besondere Gemeinden des Landes sind. Here are fun facts and statistics related to the Dutch food production and agriculture industries in the Netherlands… Continue reading → THINGS ORIGINATED IN SOUTH HOLLAND. Wilhelm von Oraniens Ideal einer friedlichen Koexistenz der Konfessionen zerbrach jedoch rasch an den Realitäten. The German kings and emperors ruled the Netherlands in the 10th and 11th century. The contemporary southern and western migration of Germanic groups and the northern expansion of the Hallstatt culture drew these peoples into each other's sphere of influence. Die Flüsse Rhein, Maas und Schelde, welche aus dem europäischen Ausland durch die Niederlande in die Nordsee fließen, machen die Niederlande zu einem Knotenpunkt der europäischen Binnenschifffahrt. Ferner gibt es noch die waterschappen, die sich mit Deichschutz und Wasserwirtschaft beschäftigen. Bekannte niederländische Rapper sind Ali B und Lange Frans. The profits of these ventures were ploughed back in the financing of new trade, which led to its exponential growth. Public deficits were high. With the approach of Alba and the Spanish army, William the Silent of Orange fled to Germany with his three brothers and his whole family on 11 April 1567. Major industries included textiles and (later) the great Philips industrial conglomerate. In his political views, Geyl adopted the views of the 17th-century Dutch Louvestein faction, led by Johan van Oldenbarneveldt (1547–1619) and Johan de Witt (1625–72). His strategy was to offer generous terms for the surrender of a city: there would be no more massacres or looting; historic urban privileges were retained; there was a full pardon and amnesty; return to the Catholic Church would be gradual. Continue reading → HOLLAND FOOD PRODUCTION TRIVIA. They had lived through the hardships of the Great Depression and the hell of war. Neben Amsterdam und Den Haag ist Rotterdam zudem eines der kulturellen Zentren der Niederlande. Three volumes appeared in English translation, Herbert H. Rowen, "The Historical Work of Pieter Geyl. A devout Catholic, Philip was appalled by the success of the Reformation in the Low Countries, which had led to an increasing number of Calvinists. The latter group were the Republicans, led by the Grand Pensionary (a sort of prime minister) and the regents stood for localism, municipal rights, commerce, and peace. As the cities grew in wealth and power, they started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign, including city rights, the right to self-government and the right to pass laws. 1815 wurde das Königreich der Niederlande gegründet. The Franks became Christians after their king Clovis I converted to Catholicism, an event which is traditionally set in 496. The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe was signed on 26 July 1581, and was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king. Die hoch technologisierte Landwirtschaft ist außerordentlich produktiv: neben Getreide-, Gemüse-, Früchte- und Schnittblumenanbau – die Tulpenzüchtung beeinflusste sogar die Geschichte des Landes – gibt es noch Milchviehhaltung in großem Maßstab. The city contributed the largest quota in taxes to the States of Holland which in turn contributed over half the quota to the States General. Insgesamt (Katholiken, Protestanten und Orthodoxe) lebten Ende 2010 6.861.000 Christen (oder 41,3 %) in den Niederlanden.[20]. In October 1782, a treaty of amity and commerce was concluded as well. There were similar ventures in different fields however, like the trade on Russia and the Levant. [22], Scholars debate the actual extent of the Celtic influence. By 1826, although much smaller than France, the Dutch national government was spending 12 times more than Paris on education.[136]. Many immigrants came to the cities of Holland in the 17th and 18th century from the Protestant parts of Germany and elsewhere. The city is a placed a meter or so below sea-level. Here’s a list of 25 Interesting facts about the Netherlands and the Dutch people that you probably didn’t know! Unskilled laborers remained locked in poverty and hardship. Many Patriots, perhaps around 40,000 in all, fled to Brabant, France (especially Dunkirk and St. Omer) and elsewhere. Sendungen für Kinder bilden durch ihre Synchronisationen eine Ausnahme. In fact, the demand for labour was so strong that immigration was actively encouraged, first from Italy and Spain then later on, in larger numbers, from Turkey and Morocco. His theory of causation over-emphasized ethnicity as an unchanging characteristic, exaggerated the importance of William of Orange, and gave undue importance to the issue religious tolerance. Während dieser Zeit wurden Handelsposten auf der ganzen Welt errichtet. Flaggen, Wimpel und Wappen der Provinzen der Niederlande, 51.9166666666675.5666666666667Koordinaten: 52° N, 6° O, Dieser Artikel behandelt das Land innerhalb des, Jugoslawien Sozialistische Föderative Republik, im 16. In 1857, all religious instruction was ended in public schools, but the various churches set up their own schools, and even universities. Large bronze situlae (buckets) found in Drenthe were manufactured somewhere in eastern France or in Switzerland. Their aim was to reduce corruption and the power held by the stadtholder, William V, Prince of Orange. Increased political activism and Japanese occupation undermining Dutch rule culminated in nationalists proclaiming independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the surrender of Japan. 47.091 Dollar). entsandte den Herzog von Alba in die Niederlande und versuchte, den Aufstand zu unterdrücken. These ventures were soon consolidated in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In the late 19th century, Dutch historians believed that the Franks, Frisians, and Saxons were the original ancestors of the Dutch people. Der Rechtspopulist[52] Geert Wilders bekam mit seiner Partei PVV dadurch Einfluss auf die niederländische Regierung, ohne ihr selbst anzugehören. In den Niederlanden sind auch Eddie Van Halen und Alex Van Halen geboren, die Bandmitglieder der US-amerikanischen Hard-Rock-Band Van Halen sind. Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. (The part of North Holland situated north of Alkmaar is still colloquially known as West Friesland). [83] Die Niederländer nannten die heutige Hauptstadt Indonesiens, Jakarta, während ihrer Kolonialzeit ebenfalls Batavia. Protestants were the largest denomination in the North (population 2 million), but formed a quarter of the population in the overwhelmingly Catholic South (population 3.5 million). Insgesamt brachte das 21. The position of the Dutch during the American War of Independence was one of neutrality. Kleinere christliche Kirchen haben jeweils weniger als ein Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung als Mitglieder. The government responded by pillaging those towns where opposition continued. Are you looking for Netherlands facts, The Netherlands is a little nation sandwiched among Belgium and Germany in the West of Europe.Known as the most beneficial nation, Netherlands is the one to find extraordinary creations, for example, the magnifying instrument, telescope, and the pendulum clock and the mercury thermometer. 63. Still, the Dutch Royal Family along with some armed forces fled to the United Kingdom. [150] In 1930 radio was organized so that each pillar had full control of its own network. Although some of the Netherlands had come under Viking control, in 870 it technically became part of East Francia, which became the Holy Roman Empire in 962. Napoleon forced his abdication in 1810 and incorporated the Netherlands directly into the French empire, imposing economic controls and conscription of all young men as soldiers. Zusammen mit Belgien und Luxemburg bilden die Niederlande die Benelux-Union. Later, in imperial times, a tribe called the Batavi became very important in this region. The ensuing cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD and LPF, led by Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende. Later he decried what he called radical nationalism and stressed more the vitality of Western Civilization. Nearly all were Catholic, but it was divided between French-speaking Walloons and Dutch-speaking Flemings. Jahrhunderts gelten Harry Mulisch (Das Attentat, Die Entdeckung des Himmels, beide auch verfilmt), Willem Frederik Hermans (Die Dunkelkammer des Damokles, auch verfilmt; Nie mehr schlafen) und Gerard Reve (Die Abende, Der vierte Mann, beide auch verfilmt). Stadtholder William III decided he had to take a huge gamble when he was invited to invade England by Protestant British nobles feuding with William's father-in-law the Catholic James II of England. [34], Im PISA-Ranking von 2018 erreichen die niederländischen Schüler Platz 7 von 77 Ländern in Mathematik, Platz 12 in Naturwissenschaften und Platz 24 beim Leseverständnis und liegen damit über dem Durchschnitt der OECD-Staaten.[35]. Das wichtigste Gasfeld liegt in der Provinz Groningen. [117] In 1650, the stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange suddenly died; his son was a baby and the Orangists were leaderless. The Dutch Republic of the United Provinces was a true republic from 1650 to 1672 and 1702–1748. In 1688 the Dutch and the Germans were joined by French Huguenots, also Calvinists, who were fleeing religious persecution in France under King Louis XIV. The Low Countries were favorably positioned on a crossing of east–west and north–south trade routes and connected to a large German hinterland through the Rhine river. It had the tenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2011. Man sprach dann von den nördlichen und den südlichen Niederlanden. The Netherlands has the highest population density (493 inhabitants per square km - water excluded) of any European country with over 1 million inhabitants. Februar 2018 zählten die Niederlande 17.194.974 Einwohner,[2] davon wohnte ungefähr die Hälfte in der Randstad, dem dicht besiedelten Westen des Landes. One of the people most responsible for designing pillarization was Abraham Kuyper (1837–1920), a leading politician, neo-Calvinist theologian, and journalist. Die Niederlande (im Deutschen Plural; niederländisch Nederland und friesisch Nederlân, Singular) sind eines der vier autonomen Länder des Königreiches der Niederlande. Das größtenteils im nördlichen Westeuropa liegende Land wird dort durch die Nordsee im Norden und Westen, Belgien im Süden und Deutschland im Osten begrenzt. However, things came to a head with the Dutch attempt to join the Russian-led League of Armed Neutrality, leading to the outbreak of the disastrous Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1780. [156], The Dutch empire comprised the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), as well as Surinam in South America and some minor possessions. In 1688, the relations with England reached crisis level once again. Most islands were not a problem but there was a long, costly campaign against the Achin (Aceh) state in northern Sumatra. Religious life became more relaxed as well. Allerdings strebten sie dabei eine Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft an und keine politische Union. However, the disadvantages of this historical interpretation became apparent. Most of them have not survived. Jahrhunderts zurück. [65], During the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation rapidly gained ground in northern Europe, especially in its Lutheran and Calvinist forms. These were the first of the Trekboers (Wandering Farmers, later shortened to Boers), completely independent of official controls, extraordinarily self-sufficient, and isolated from the government and the main settlement in Cape Town. In der Provinz Fryslân ist zusätzlich das eng verwandte Westfriesisch Verwaltungssprache.[16]. [70], The second wave of the Reformation, came in the form of Anabaptism, that was popular among ordinary farmers in Holland and Friesland. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. Seit einigen Jahren sind auch die erweiterten Musikrichtungen Jumpstyle, Hardstyle und Speedcore sehr beliebt. Diese beherbergt mehrere Schularten. A number of towns and developments would arise along this line. This would have been the northern reach of the Gauls. Starting at 1595 Reformed churches were commissioned, many of which are still landmarks today. Nach 1984 ging die Popularität dieser Gattung stark zurück, um sich zehn Jahre später wieder zu erholen, diesmal aber nicht nur für einige Jahre. Sie hat Aufgaben wie den Grenzschutz, die Bewachung der Flughäfen und den Personenschutz für die Königsfamilie. [47] Das Kabinett des sozialdemokratischen Ministerpräsidenten Joop den Uyl wählte sich von 1973 bis 1977 das Motto „Die Fantasie an die Macht“. Second, the environment in the low-lying coastal regions of northwestern Europe began to lower c. 250 and gradually receded over the next 200 years. Die wichtigste, von 1848, führte die Ministerverantwortlichkeit ein und ebnete damit den Weg zum parlamentarischen System. Koenigsberger, "The Beginnings of the States General of the Netherlands,", Violet Soen, "Reconquista and Reconciliation in the Dutch Revolt: The Campaign of Governor-General Alexander Farnese (1578–1592),", Bart de Groof, "Alexander Farnese and the Origins of Modern Belgium,". [51][52][53] Archeological evidence suggests dramatically different models for different regions, with demographic continuity for some parts of the country and depopulation and possible replacement in other parts, notably the coastal areas of Frisia and Holland. In later Roman times their territory seems to have been divided or reduced, so that it became mainly contained in what is now western Belgium. Die Gesundheitsfürsorge in den Niederlanden kann auf verschiedene Weise aufgeteilt werden: in drei Stufen, in somatische und psychische Gesundheitsfürsorge sowie in Kur (kurzzeitig) und Pflege (langfristig). On the other hand, the intensely moralistic Dutch Protestants insisted their Biblical theology, sincere piety and humble lifestyle was morally superior to the luxurious habits and superficial religiosity of the ecclesiastical nobility. [65], Mit über 15,8 Millionen Touristen standen die Niederlande 2016 auf Platz 21 der meistbesuchten Länder der Welt. Suriname wurde 1975 unabhängig. Third, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, there was a decline in population as Roman activity stopped and Roman institutions withdrew. Three days later Germany unconditionally surrendered, bringing the war in Europe to an end.